Politik dan Kekuasaan

Michael Towoliumichael towoliu

Oleh: Michael Towoliu

ADA rasa haru ketika tahun baru 2012 akan tiba….ada rasa sedih ketika tahun 2011 akan berakhir…berbuat salah itu manusiawi, memaafkan itu mulia…sepenggal kalimat dari seorang sahabat jelang acara perpisahan tahun, ternyata cukup menggetarkan hati. Kata memaafkan yang didengungkan, seakan tak pernah hilang dari ingatan. Betapa tidak, sebagai manusia, tentunya kita semua pernah melakukan kesalahan, baik secara sadar maupun tidak. Jelas saja, pasti ada yang merasa sakit hati akibat yang ditimbulkan dari perbuatan itu.
Kita memang telah meninggalkan coretan di dinding baik pada ranah politik, pemerintahan dan hukum di tahun 2011 lalu, kendati imbasnya masih sangat terasa hingga saat ini. Bicara soal politik dan pemerintahan yang identik dengan kekuasaan, baiknya mengambil sampel tahun 1998, ketika rezim orde baru yang dipimpin Presiden RI Soeharto tumbang.
Sejarah telah mencatat, selang kepemimpinan pak Harto—sapaan Soeharto—banyak kejadian besar yang terjadi, termasuk isu-isu penculikan/pembunuhan para aktivis yang dianggap membangkang kala itu sampai pada pengekangan pers sebagai corong masyarakat. Setiap organisasi maupun individu yang dianggap melawan arus, pasti dibabat. Sangat terasa, politik dan kekuasaan memang paling dominan kala itu dari pada penegakan supremasi hukum. Sepertinya, kesan memaafkan sudah tak digubris lagi. Hukum ditunggangi kekuasaan. Salah atau benar, bila telah bersinggungan dengan penguasa, pasti terjerat hukum yang telah menjadi alat pemukul dari penguasa. Pun hal ini sempat berlaku hingga di daerah.
Namun, seriring waktu berjalan, dengan tumbangnya pak Harto, rezim orde baru pun tersingkir. Masa reformasi tiba. Kekuasaan terkesan kembali ke tangan rakyat. Faktanya, mulai dari Presiden, Gubernur, Walikota, Bupati hingga anggota DPR, langsung dipilih rakyat. Semua tergantung rakyat. Suara rakyat adalah suara Tuhan. Tetapi timbul pertanyaan, apa benar demikian? Sepertinya tidak. Sebab, apa yang terjadi saat ini, masih miris. Misalnya, hanya gara-gara sepenggal tulisan saja yang berbentuk kritikan, Prita masuk bui. Hanya karena sandal, seorang bocah mendekam di penjara. Hanya persoalan helm, seorang wartawan dijemput paksa aparat. Ini sepertinya bukan hukum yang bekerja, kuat dugaan ada faktor kekuasaan yang bersembunyi di balik ini.
Faktor penggunaan kekuasaan dan politik juga terasa di daerah. Banyak masalah yang mencuat, termasuk penempatan dan pengangkatan pejabat yang sangat kental dengan pengaruh kekuasaan. Katanya negeri ini menganut asas demokrasi yang mengacu pada otonomi daerah, di mana, kewenangan daerah tingkat II itu ada pada Walikota dan Bupati. Pun hal itu tertuang melalui UU no 22 tahun 1999 yang telah disempurnakan pada UU no 32 tahun 2004 tentang pemerintah daerah.
Akan tetapi, prakteknya terkesan tidak demikian. Kerap, kepala daerah se tingkat Bupati/Walikota tak berdaya terhadap pengaruh kekuasaan. Terutama proses penempatan seorang sekda atau sekkot. Padahal, sekretaris daerah itu adalah jabatan paling strategis. Jelas saja, seorang sekda, harus yang se jalan dengan Bupati atau Walikota. Mengapa demikian? sebab, atasan langsungnya adalah Walikota/Bupati itu sendiri. Coba bayangkan, jika seorang sekda tidak loyal kepada Bupati/Walikota? Mau dibawa ke mana arah pemerintahan di wilayah itu sendiri. Sekda itu harusnya hanya mendengar satu perintah bukan dua dalam artian memiliki satu induk bukan dua.
Tak heran, kondisi ini membuat gerah para pemimpin di daerah. Telah ada contoh, di mana seorang sekda telah diberhentikan/dinonaktifkan oleh Walikota karena dinilai sudah tak sejalan lagi. Ironisnya, sekda melakukan perlawanan melalui jalur PTUN. Padahal, sudah sangat jelas, dalam UU kepegawaian, seorang PNS harus siap ditempatkan di mana saja. Fenomena ini, pelak bukan hanya mengundang perhatian rakyat Sulut, tetapi pihak Depertemen Dalam Negeri (Depdagri) juga ikut memantau. Indikasi adanya campur tangan kekuasaan terasa pada persoalan ini. Beruntung, Walikota Manado, Ir GSV Lumentut, berjiwa besar. Proses hukum yang dilayangkan mantan bawahannya itu dihadapi tanpa menggubris dugaan adanya kepentingan kekuatan besar di balik gugatan tersebut. Alhasil, gugatan tersebut ditolak PTUN. Bahkan, sikap negarawan sejati ditunjukkan oleh Walikota Manado dengan mengaktifkan kembali mantan sekkot Manado tersebut.
Karena itu, jika tidak ada pembaharuan baik tingkah laku maupun dalam bentuk regulasi yang lebih jelas terutama mengenai kewenangan kepala daerah, maka tahun 2012 sepertinya masih akan didominasi faktor kekuasaan.
Di sisi lain, suhu politik di Sulut tahun 2012 juga sepertinya bakal memanas sementara di ranah hukum terutama pemberantasan kasus korupsi besar, masih adem ayam. Bagaimana tidak, banyak pengusutan kasus korupsi yang terkesan mandek. Apalagi, dugaan belum tersentuhnya dalang di balik berbagai kejahatan luar biasa itu. Misalnya, kasus pengadaan lahan Pemkab Mitra. Yang menjual lahan dan membeli dijadikan tersangka, sementara, yang mengeluarkan wewenang atau sang pengambil keputusan tak terjamah hukum. Ada apa ini? Kacamata hukum yang salah atau pelaku hukumnya yang kurang jeli. Di sisi lain, kondisi sosial masyarakat terutama di wilayah adanya pertambangan cukup mengharukan. Perjuangan rakyat setempat, yang menolak adanya pertambangan di lokasi mereka, kurang didukung oleh kekuasaan sebagai pemberi izin. Kekhawatiran rakyat sekitar soal kemungkinan bisa terjadi semacam pencemaran yang dapat membahayakan anak cucu mereka nanti, terkesan hanya angin lalu saja.
Akan tetapi, dari segi kamtibmas, Sulut masih tetap lebih baik dibandingkan dengan daerah lain. Kinerja aparat kepolisian daerah (Polda) Sulut, patut diacungi jempol. Tidak ada persoalan yang menonjol terjadi di tahun 2011 lalu, dan diprediksikan, hal sama juga di tahun 2012 jika penegakan supremasi hukum tetap dijaga dengan baik. Karenanya, dengan posisi keamanan yang memadai, pergerakan ekonomi dengan sendirinya terjadi peningkatan. Lihat saja, sejumlah investor terus melirik Sulut, khususnya Manado. Mulai dari bisnis perumahan real estate hingga lokasi perbelanjaan yang tersebar sepanjang jalur boulevard, makin dikembangkan. Slogan Manado surga belanja menggema. Sifat konsumtif warga Manado makin tak terbendung yang berujung transaksi jual beli pun meningkat tajam. Kembali ke ranah politik, memasuki tahun 2012 ini, proses Pilkada di sejumlah wilayah, terutama di tanah Toar Lumimuut, Minahasa Induk, Tondano, makin terasa. Pertarungan calon yang ingin menggunakan kendaraan politik, terjadi. Aksi sikut menyikut pun tak terhindarkan. Seluruh partai politik (parpol) terus berbenah, di mana mesin parpol sebagai penggerak peraup suara besar mulai beraksi. Tak heran, pencitraan para calon baik melalui baliho, spanduk maupun pemberitaan media massa tersebar hampir di seluruh pelosok desa di Minahasa. Sepertinya, hasil pilkada di Minahasa, akan menjadi semacam batu pijakan atau pembuktian, parpol mana yang nanti memiliki peluang besar memenangkan Pemilu 2014 dan pemilihan Gubernur Sulut 2015 nanti. Ini jelas termasuk pertarungan gengsi antar parpol besar, PDIP, Golkar dan Demokrat dan genderangnya mulai terdengar pada tahun 2012 ini. Di lain pihak, elit politik pun mulai bergerak yang terkesan akan melahirkan koalisi antar parpol. Pelak, jika hal ini terwujud, dengan ditunjang ketokohan, popularitas dan elektabilitas kandidat, dipastikan pasangan hasil koalisi akan menang telak pada perhelatan pilkada Minahasa nanti. (*)

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